Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C). Grease a large cast-iron skillet.
Whisk cornmeal, baking powder, and salt in a bowl; beat sour cream and eggs into cornmeal mixture until thoroughly combined. Stir cream-style corn, onion, vegetable oil, and jalapeno peppers into batter.
Pour half the batter into prepared cast-iron skillet; spread 1 cup Cheddar cheese over batter. Pour in remaining batter and spread remaining 2 cups Cheddar cheese on top.
Bake in the preheated oven until set and the cheese topping is melted and browned, about 45 minutes.
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